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This climate is characterized by bitterly cold temperatures and scant precipitation. It occurs poleward of 65° N and S latitude over the ice caps of Greenland and Antarctica and over the permanently frozen portion of the Arctic Ocean. In snow and ice climate regions, temperatures are below freezing throughout the year, and annual temperature ranges are large but again not as large as in the continental subarctic climates. Winters are frigid; the lowest temperatures occur at the end of the long polar night. Precipitation is meager in the cold, stable air, with the largest amounts occurring on the coastal margins. Most of this precipitation results from the periodic penetration of a cyclone into the region, which brings snow and ice pellets and, with strong winds, blizzards. High winds also occur in the outer portions of the Greenland and Antarctic EF climates, where cold, dense air drains off the higher, central sections of the ice caps. The EF climate holds the distinction for the lowest recorded temperatures at Earth's surface in Antarctica.
The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "EF". (Snow and Ice Climate).
The average temperature for the year in Islas Orcadas is 26.0°F (-3.3°C). The warmest month, on average, is February with an average temperature of 35.0°F (1.7°C). The coolest month on average is July, with an average temperature of 15.0°F (-9.4°C).
The highest recorded temperature in Islas Orcadas is 61.0°F (16.1°C), which was recorded in February. The lowest recorded temperature in Islas Orcadas is 41.0°F (5°C), which was recorded in August.
The average amount of precipitation for the year in Islas Orcadas is 19.0" (482.6 mm). The month with the most precipitation on average is March with 2.3" (58.4 mm) of precipitation. The month with the least precipitation on average is July with an average of 1.3" (33 mm).