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This climate is characterized by bitterly cold temperatures and scant precipitation. It occurs poleward of 65° N and S latitude over the ice caps of Greenland and Antarctica and over the permanently frozen portion of the Arctic Ocean. In snow and ice climate regions, temperatures are below freezing throughout the year, and annual temperature ranges are large but again not as large as in the continental subarctic climates. Winters are frigid; the lowest temperatures occur at the end of the long polar night. Precipitation is meager in the cold, stable air, with the largest amounts occurring on the coastal margins. Most of this precipitation results from the periodic penetration of a cyclone into the region, which brings snow and ice pellets and, with strong winds, blizzards. High winds also occur in the outer portions of the Greenland and Antarctic EF climates, where cold, dense air drains off the higher, central sections of the ice caps. The EF climate holds the distinction for the lowest recorded temperatures at Earth's surface in Antarctica.
The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "EF". (Snow and Ice Climate).
The average temperature for the year in Base Orcadas is 26.0°F (-3.3°C). The warmest month, on average, is January with an average temperature of 32.0°F (0°C). The coolest month on average is July, with an average temperature of 14.0°F (-10°C).
There are an average of 227.0 days of precipitation, with the most precipitation occurring in November with 22.0 days and the least precipitation occurring in February with 14.0 days.